Risk of Vibrio Transmission Linked to Consumption and Contact with Water in Benin

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Laboratory of Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology [LBTMM]. University of Abomey-Calavi, 05 BP 1604 Cotonou, Benin

2 Engineering of Human Biology / Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi [EPAC], University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin

3 Research Unit in Microbiology, Application and Pharmacology of Natural Substances [URMAPha], University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin

4 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

10.21608/ijma.2021.67136.1289

Abstract

Background:Vibrio infections have increased in Benin, and this phenomenon is expected to increase due to climate change, increased consumption of contaminated water and the number of people who are immunocompromised.
The aim of the work: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of Vibrio transmission linked to the use of contaminated water in Benin.
Methodology: Water samples [n = 220] were analyzed to isolate Vibrio strains using their biochemical and cultural characteristics. The species were identified by the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique by monitoring the search for genes encoding the cholera toxin of Vibrio cholerae [ctxA and ctxB] and the direct thermostable and thermostable hemolysins linked to Vibrio parahaemolyticus [tdh and trh].
Results: Among the 220 collected samples, the biochemical tests revealed 86 strains of Vibrio species; Vibrio cholerae [35%], Vibrio parahaemolyticus [18.60%] and Vibrio alginolyticus [13.95%] were identified using molecular tool. The presence of genes encoding the main virulence factors of the strains studied. Thus 6.67%, 10% and 3.33% of the strains of Vibrio cholerae respectively contain the toxins ctxA, ctxB and the couple ctxA and ctxB. Likewise, the Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains contain 12.5% tdh toxins and 31.25% [tdh and trh]. The search for genes [tdh and trh] in Vibrio alginolyticus was also negative.
Conclusion: Epidemics can be triggered by natural or fabricated events that contaminate drinking water or compromise access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The incidence of vibriosis is increasing, perhaps in part because of the spread of Vibrio species promoted by climate change and increasing water temperature. 

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