Ketamine versus Dexmedetomidine in Local Wound Infiltration for Postoperative Pain Relief in Cesarean Section

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, El Hawamdyia General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Egypt

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt



Background: Cesarean delivery is a frequently obstetric operation in Egypt with a recently reported over all cesarean section rate of 54% and it causes moderate to severe postoperative discomfort. Infiltration of the wound site is a method to improve postoperative analgesia.
The aim of the work: To compare the pain relief effects of ketamine versus dexmedetomidine combined to bupivacaine in local wound infiltration in patients underwent cesarean section and to estimate side effects of medications.
Patients and Methods: This randomized, controlled study including 90 women were subjected for elective cesarean delivery under general anesthesia and were divided at random into 3 equal groups to receive 40 ml bupivacaine (0.25%) + either 2 mg/kg ketamine in (group A), 2 μg/kg dexmedetomidine in (group B) or 2 ml saline in (group C) via local wound infiltration. The primary outcome was time of the first analgesia requested. The secondary outcomes were total dose of analgesia per 24 hours, Visual analogue scale, time of starting movement, breast-feeding, passing flatus or stool, start of eating and adverse effects of medications.
Results: A significant increase in time of the first analgesic request in group A (8.4 ±1.91) h. and group B (7.5±1.81) h. than group C (4.3±1.24) h. A significant decrease in pethidine consumption in group A (59 ± 28.93 mg) than group B (72 ± 23.1 mg) and group C (102 ±16 mg). The visual analogue scale (VAS) was significantly lower (p <0.001) in groups A and B than in group C. The time of start movement, breast-feeding, passing flatus and eating was decreased in groups A and B than in group C
Conclusions: Addition of ketamine or dexmedetomidine to local anesthetics wound infiltration increased time to the first analgesia request and decreased total analgesic consumption, but ketamine is superior.